Data recovery is the process of retrieving and restoring lost, damaged, or inaccessible data from storage media, such as hard drives, solid-state drives (SSDs), external drives, USB flash drives, memory cards, and more. This can involve recovering files and data that have been accidentally deleted, corrupted due to hardware or software failures, or lost due to physical damage to the storage device. Data recovery is an essential service when valuable or irreplaceable information is at risk.

Here’s a general overview of how data recovery works:


The first step in data recovery is assessing the situation. Data recovery professionals or software tools analyse the storage device to determine the nature and extent of the data loss. They identify the cause of the data loss, whether it’s accidental deletion, formatting, file system corruption, hardware failure, or physical damage.


If the data loss is due to hardware or physical issues with the storage device, it’s essential to isolate the device to prevent further damage. This may involve repairing or replacing malfunctioning components in a controlled environment, such as a cleanroom for physically damaged drives.

3-Creating a Disc Image

In many cases, especially when dealing with failing drives, a disc image is created to duplicate the entire content of the storage device. This image is a bit-by-bit copy and helps protect the original data from further damage during the recovery process.

4-Logical Recovery

For cases of accidental deletion, file system corruption, or formatting, data recovery software is often used. These programmes scan the disc image or the original storage device for traces of the lost data, looking for file structures, file headers, and other indicators. Once the data is found, it’s extracted and copied to a separate location.

5-Hardware Recovery

If the data loss is due to hardware failures, such as a malfunctioning read/write head in a hard drive or NAND flash memory cell issues in an SSD, data recovery professionals may need to repair or replace these components. This can be a delicate and complex process that requires specialised equipment.


After recovering the data, it’s essential to verify the integrity and completeness of the recovered files. Data recovery experts typically use various tools to check file consistency and quality.

6-Data Restoration

Once the recovered data is confirmed to be intact, it’s restored to a new storage device or provided to the client in the format they require.

It’s important to note that not all data recovery attempts are successful, especially in cases of severe physical damage or overwriting of data. Prevention is often the best strategy to avoid data loss, which includes regular backups and safeguarding data against accidents and hardware failures. When data loss occurs, it’s generally recommended to seek the assistance of professional data recovery services, especially for critical data, as they have the expertise and tools to maximise the chances of successful recovery.